Manic Depression or Bipolar disorder entails periods of excitability (mania) alternating with periods of depression. The "mood swings" amongst mania and depression may be quite abrupt. Alternating moods of abnormal highs (mania) and lows (depression). Referred to as bipolar illness because of the swings amongst these opposing poles in mood. A type of depressive illness. Not almost as prevalent as other types of depressive disorders. Sometimes the mood switches are dramatic and rapid, but most typically they may be gradual. Mania typically impacts thinking, judgment, and social behavior in approaches that cause critical troubles and embarrassment. For instance, unwise enterprise or monetary decisions might be created when an individual is inside a manic phase. Bipolar disorder is usually a chronic recurring condition.
A mild to moderate level of mania is known as hypomania. Hypomania could feel excellent to the individual who experiences it and could even be linked with good functioning and enhanced productivity. Therefore even when family members and friends find out to recognize the mood swings as achievable bipolar disorder, the individual may possibly deny that anything is wrong. Without suitable treatment, even so, hypomania can grow to be severe mania in some people or can switch into depression
Manic-depressive illness or bipolar disorder affects both guys and girls. Although it can start at any age, it generally begins in late adolescence. Bipolar disorder is identified amongst people of all ages, races, ethnic groups, and social classes. It appears to have a genetic link and tends to run in families. Unfortunately, moreover to affecting the sufferer’s life, this disease also has the potential to devastate the lives of the caregivers and those in the immediate household circle.
Bipolar disorder impacts men and ladies equally. It usually appears in between ages 15 - 25. The precise lead to is unknown, however it occurs much more typically in relatives of people with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder outcomes from disturbances inside the areas with the brain that regulate mood.
There are two major kinds of bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorder I have had at the very least one particular totally manic episode with periods of major depression. In the past, bipolar disorder I was referred to as manic depression.
People with bipolar disorder II seldom knowledge full-fledged mania. Rather they knowledge periods of hypomania (elevated levels of energy and impulsiveness which are not as extreme because the signs and symptoms of mania). These hypomanic periods alternate with episodes of major depression.
A mild type of bipolar disorder known as cyclothymia involves periods of hypomania and mild depression, with less serious mood swings. Folks with bipolar disorder II or cyclothymia might be misdiagnosed as getting depression alone.
Sometimes, severe episodes of mania or depression consist of signs and symptoms of psychosis (or psychotic signs and symptoms). Common psychotic symptoms are hallucinations (hearing, seeing, or otherwise sensing the presence of things not in fact there) and delusions (false, strongly held beliefs not influenced by logical reasoning or explained by a person's usual cultural concepts). Psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder often reflect the extreme mood state in the time. By way of example, delusions of grandiosity, like believing a single will be the President or has specific powers or wealth, may possibly occur during mania; delusions of guilt or worthlessness, for example believing that a single is ruined and penniless or has committed some terrible crime, may appear for the duration of depression. People with bipolar disorder who have these signs and symptoms are at times incorrectly diagnosed as having schizophrenia, one more severe mental illness. Some people with bipolar disorder turn into suicidal.
The manic phase may last from days to months and can include the following signs and symptoms:
- Agitation or irritation
- Elevated mood
- Increased energy
- Lack of self-control
- Racing thoughts
- Inflated self-esteem (delusions of grandeur, false beliefs in specific abilities)
- Little need for sleep
- Over-involvement in activities
- Poor temper control
- Reckless behavior
- Binge eating, drinking, and/or drug use
- Impaired judgment
- Sexual promiscuity
- Spending sprees
- Tendency to be easily distracted
These signs and symptoms of mania are seen with bipolar disorder I. In people with bipolar disorder II, hypomanic episodes involve similar symptoms which might be much less intense.
The depressed phase of each types of bipolar disorder involves extremely serious signs and symptoms of main depression:
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
- Eating disturbances
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Overeating and weight gain
- Fatigue or listlessness
- Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness and/or guilt
- Loss of self-esteem
- Persistent sadness
- Persistent thoughts of death
- Sleep disturbances
- Excessive sleepiness
- Inability to sleep
- Suicidal thoughts
- Withdrawal from activities that were once enjoyed
- Withdrawal from friends
There is a high risk of suicide with bipolar disorder. While in either phase, patients could abuse alcohol or other substances, which can worsen the symptoms.
Sometimes there is an overlap in between the two phases. Manic and depressive signs and symptoms might happen simultaneously or in quick succession in what is named a mixed state.
The symptoms of manic-depressive illness or bipolar disorder are classified according to either manic or depressive episodes. Manic depressive states are diagnosed as:
- Manic episode: A manic episode is diagnosed if elevated mood occurs with 3 or more with the other signs and symptoms most with the day, practically every day, or for 1 week or longer. If the mood is irritable, 4 additional signs and symptoms must be present.
- Depressive episode: A depressive episode is diagnosed if 5 or more of these signs and symptoms last most from the day, almost every day, or for a period of 2 weeks or longer.
- Mixed bipolar episode: In many people, however, signs and symptoms of mania and depression can occur together inside a mixed bipolar state. A individual could have a really sad, hopeless mood, while feeling energized in the same time.
- Ask about your household medical history, particularly whether anyone has or had bipolar disorder
- Ask about your recent mood swings and for how long you've experienced them
- Observe your behavior and mood
- Perform a thorough examination to identify or rule out physical causes for the symptoms
- Request laboratory tests to check for thyroid troubles or drug levels
- Speak with your household members to discuss their observations about your behavior
- Take a medical history, including any medical problems you have and any medications you take
Manic-depressive illness has a recurrent pattern, and continuous treatment is necessary. An adequate amount of sleep and regular sleep times are of main importance in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Knowing personal triggers for example sleep patterns and life events help within the correct treatment with the illness.
A strategy that combines medication and psychosocial treatment is optimal for managing the disorder over time. Medications known as "mood stabilizers" normally are prescribed to help control bipolar disorder.
For the manic phase of bipolar disorder, antipsychotic medications, lithium, and mood stabilizers are typically used. For the depressive phase, antidepressants are at times used, with or with out the manic phase treatment.
Several different varieties of mood stabilizers are available:
- Lithium, the first mood-stabilizing medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of mania, is often extremely effective in controlling mania and preventing the recurrence of both manic and depressive episodes.
- Anticonvulsant medications, for example valproate (Depakote) or carbamazepine (Tegretol), also can have mood-stabilizing effects and may be especially useful for difficult-to-treat bipolar episodes. Valproate was FDA-approved in 1995 for treatment of mania.
- Newer anticonvulsant medications, including lamotrigine (Lamictal), gabapentin (Neurontin), and topiramate (Topamax), are being studied to determine how well they work in stabilizing mood cycles.
Mood-stabilizing medication can help control the symptoms of bipolar disorder. Even so, patients often need help and support to take medicine properly and to ensure that any episodes of mania and depression are treated as early as attainable.
Some people stop taking the medication as soon as they really feel better or because they want to encounter the productivity and creativity linked with mania. Even though these early manic states might feel great, discontinuing medication could have really negative consequences.
Suicide is a really real risk throughout both mania and depression. Suicidal thoughts, ideas, and gestures in individuals with bipolar affective disorder require immediate emergency attention.