Manic Depression or Bipolar disorder entails periods of excitability (mania) alternating with periods of depression. The "mood swings" among mania and depression may be very abrupt. Alternating moods of abnormal highs (mania) and lows (depression). Referred to as bipolar disease due to the swings among these opposing poles in mood. A form of depressive illness. Not practically as prevalent as other types of depressive disorders. Occasionally the mood switches are dramatic and rapid, but most often they are gradual. Mania typically affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in approaches that cause critical problems and embarrassment. As an example, unwise company or monetary choices could be created when an individual is in a manic phase. Bipolar disorder is often a chronic recurring condition.
A mild to moderate level of mania is referred to as hypomania. Hypomania could really feel great for the individual who experiences it and could even be linked with good functioning and enhanced productivity. Thus even when family and friends learn to recognize the mood swings as feasible bipolar disorder, the person could deny that anything is incorrect. Without proper treatment, nonetheless, hypomania can turn into serious mania in some individuals or can switch into depression
Manic-depressive illness or bipolar disorder impacts both guys and girls. Despite the fact that it might start off at any age, it typically begins in late adolescence. Bipolar disorder is discovered among people of all ages, races, ethnic groups, and social classes. It appears to have a genetic link and tends to run in households. Sadly, in addition to affecting the sufferer’s life, this illness also has the possible to devastate the lives in the caregivers and those within the instant loved ones circle.
Bipolar disorder impacts guys and girls equally. It generally appears between ages 15 - 25. The exact trigger is unknown, but it occurs much more often in relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder outcomes from disturbances in the locations in the brain that regulate mood.
There are two main types of bipolar disorder. Folks with bipolar disorder I've had a minimum of one completely manic episode with periods of main depression. In the past, bipolar disorder I was referred to as manic depression.
People with bipolar disorder II seldom experience full-fledged mania. Rather they expertise periods of hypomania (elevated levels of power and impulsiveness that happen to be not as extreme as the signs and symptoms of mania). These hypomanic periods alternate with episodes of significant depression.
A mild type of bipolar disorder referred to as cyclothymia involves periods of hypomania and mild depression, with much less serious mood swings. Folks with bipolar disorder II or cyclothymia may possibly be misdiagnosed as having depression alone.
Sometimes, serious episodes of mania or depression contain symptoms of psychosis (or psychotic symptoms). Frequent psychotic symptoms are hallucinations (hearing, seeing, or otherwise sensing the presence of things not actually there) and delusions (false, strongly held beliefs not influenced by logical reasoning or explained by a person's usual cultural concepts). Psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder have a tendency to reflect the extreme mood state in the time. By way of example, delusions of grandiosity, including believing one particular is the President or has special powers or wealth, may possibly occur in the course of mania; delusions of guilt or worthlessness, such as believing that one particular is ruined and penniless or has committed some terrible crime, might appear in the course of depression. Folks with bipolar disorder who have these signs and symptoms are often incorrectly diagnosed as getting schizophrenia, yet another severe mental illness. Many people with bipolar disorder turn out to be suicidal.
The manic phase might final from days to months and can incorporate the following signs and symptoms:
- Agitation or irritation
- Elevated mood
- Increased energy
- Lack of self-control
- Racing thoughts
- Inflated self-esteem (delusions of grandeur, false beliefs in particular abilities)
- Little need for sleep
- Over-involvement in activities
- Poor temper control
- Reckless behavior
- Binge eating, drinking, and/or drug use
- Impaired judgment
- Sexual promiscuity
- Spending sprees
- Tendency to be easily distracted
These signs and symptoms of mania are seen with bipolar disorder I. In people with bipolar disorder II, hypomanic episodes involve similar signs and symptoms that are less intense.
The depressed phase of both kinds of bipolar disorder entails extremely severe signs and symptoms of major depression:
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
- Eating disturbances
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Overeating and weight gain
- Fatigue or listlessness
- Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness and/or guilt
- Loss of self-esteem
- Persistent sadness
- Persistent thoughts of death
- Sleep disturbances
- Excessive sleepiness
- Inability to sleep
- Suicidal thoughts
- Withdrawal from activities that were once enjoyed
- Withdrawal from friends
There is a high risk of suicide with bipolar disorder. While in either phase, patients might abuse alcohol or other substances, which can worsen the signs and symptoms.
Sometimes there is an overlap amongst the two phases. Manic and depressive signs and symptoms might happen simultaneously or in quick succession in what is called a mixed state.
The symptoms of manic-depressive illness or bipolar disorder are classified according to either manic or depressive episodes. Manic depressive states are diagnosed as:
- Manic episode: A manic episode is diagnosed if elevated mood occurs with 3 or far more from the other symptoms most with the day, nearly every day, or for 1 week or longer. If the mood is irritable, 4 additional symptoms must be present.
- Depressive episode: A depressive episode is diagnosed if 5 or a lot more of these signs and symptoms last most from the day, nearly every day, or for a period of 2 weeks or longer.
- Mixed bipolar episode: In some individuals, nonetheless, signs and symptoms of mania and depression can happen together in a mixed bipolar state. A individual could have a extremely sad, hopeless mood, while feeling energized in the same time.
- Ask about your family members medical history, particularly whether anyone has or had bipolar disorder
- Ask about your recent mood swings and for how long you've experienced them
- Observe your behavior and mood
- Perform a thorough examination to identify or rule out physical causes for the symptoms
- Request laboratory tests to check for thyroid problems or drug levels
- Speak with your loved ones members to discuss their observations about your behavior
- Take a medical history, including any medical troubles you have and any medications you take
Manic-depressive illness has a recurrent pattern, and continuous treatment is necessary. An adequate amount of sleep and regular sleep times are of major importance in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Knowing personal triggers such as sleep patterns and life events help within the suitable treatment of the illness.
A strategy that combines medication and psychosocial treatment is optimal for managing the disorder over time. Medications known as "mood stabilizers" usually are prescribed to help control bipolar disorder.
For the manic phase of bipolar disorder, antipsychotic medications, lithium, and mood stabilizers are typically used. For the depressive phase, antidepressants are often used, with or without having the manic phase treatment.
Several different types of mood stabilizers are available:
- Lithium, the first mood-stabilizing medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of mania, is usually really effective in controlling mania and preventing the recurrence of both manic and depressive episodes.
- Anticonvulsant medications, for example valproate (Depakote) or carbamazepine (Tegretol), also can have mood-stabilizing effects and could be especially useful for difficult-to-treat bipolar episodes. Valproate was FDA-approved in 1995 for treatment of mania.
- Newer anticonvulsant medications, including lamotrigine (Lamictal), gabapentin (Neurontin), and topiramate (Topamax), are being studied to determine how well they work in stabilizing mood cycles.
Mood-stabilizing medication can help control the symptoms of bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, patients usually need help and support to take medicine properly and to ensure that any episodes of mania and depression are treated as early as feasible.
Some men and women stop taking the medication as soon as they feel better or because they want to encounter the productivity and creativity linked with mania. Even though these early manic states might really feel very good, discontinuing medication may possibly have really negative consequences.
Suicide is a very real risk for the duration of each mania and depression. Suicidal thoughts, ideas, and gestures in folks with bipolar affective disorder require immediate emergency attention.